Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Notes)
|12 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies:
The Company applies the guidance of ASC topic 805, Business Combinations. The Company recognizes the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in transactions; establishes the acquisition date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed; expenses transaction and restructuring costs; and discloses the information needed to evaluate and understand the nature and financial effect of the business combination.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less when purchased and include bank deposits, money market funds and debt instruments consisting of pre-refunded municipal bonds. The pre-refunded municipal bonds are classified as held-to-maturity and are carried at amortized cost. Money market funds are accounted for as available-for-sale securities under the requirements of ASC topic 320, Investments – Debt and Equity Securities (ASC 320).
Certificates of deposit held for investment with an original maturity greater than 90 days are carried at cost and reported as Short-term investments on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The certificates of deposit are not debt securities. The Company also invests in debt instruments consisting of pre-refunded municipal bonds. The income and principal from these pre-refunded bonds are secured by an irrevocable trust holding U.S Treasury securities. The bonds have original maturities of greater than 90 days, but remaining maturities of less than one year. The pre-refunded municipal bonds are classified as held-to-maturity and are carried at amortized cost.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount less payment discounts and estimated allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company provides allowances for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company takes into consideration the overall quality of the receivable portfolio along with specifically identified customer risks. In circumstances where the Company is aware of a specific customer’s inability to meet its financial obligations to the Company, the Company provides allowances for bad debts against amounts due to reduce the net realized receivable to the amount it reasonably believes will be collected.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash equivalents, short-term investments, and trade receivables. The Company currently invests its excess cash in money market funds, certificates of deposit and debt investments consisting of pre-refunded municipal bonds that are secured by an irrevocable trust holding U.S. Treasury securities.
Income (Loss) per Share
The computation of basic net income (loss) per share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share includes the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential shares had been issued. In periods with a net loss, all common stock equivalents are excluded from the per share calculation; therefore, the basic loss per share equals the diluted loss per share.
Inventories and Inventory Valuation
Inventories are stated at the lower of first-in, first-out (FIFO) cost or market value. Market value is based upon an estimated average selling price reduced by estimated costs of disposal. Should actual market conditions differ from the Company’s estimates, the Company’s future results of operations could be materially affected. Reductions in inventory valuation are included in cost of goods sold in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Company reviews inventory for excess quantities and obsolescence based on its best estimates of future demand, product lifecycle status and product development plans. The Company uses historical information along with these future estimates to reduce the inventory cost basis. Subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Prices anticipated for future inventory demand are compared to current and committed inventory values.
The components of inventories are as follows:
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets generally consist of prepaid product royalty, prepaid maintenance agreements and prepaid rent, which are amortized as expense generally over the term of the underlying contract or estimated product life.
Land, Property and Equipment
Land, property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, or for leasehold improvements, the shorter of the remaining lease term or the estimated useful life. The estimated useful lives for machinery and equipment range from 5 to 7 years and for office, computer and research equipment from 2 to 5 years. Expenditures for major renewals and improvements that extend the useful life of property and equipment are capitalized.
Depreciation expense from continuing operations was $1.5 million, $1.0 million and $0.6 million for fiscal years 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In accordance with ASC topic 360, Property, Plant and Equipment (ASC 360), the Company assesses all of its long-lived assets, including intangibles, for impairment when impairment indicators are identified. If the carrying value of an asset exceeds its undiscounted cash flows, an impairment loss may be necessary. An impairment loss is calculated as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value of the asset.
The Company acquired 16 acres of land with an acquisition and sold 4 acres in April 2015 for $264,000. As of March 31, 2015, the land sold was classified as held-for-sale. The remaining 12 acres of land remains on the market. The Company concluded that a sale transaction for the remaining land is not probable within the next year; therefore, unsold land is classified as held-and-used as of March 31, 2016 and 2015. A land impairment of $0.1 million was recorded in general and administrative expense using the recent selling price in fiscal year 2015. No impairment losses were recorded in fiscal years 2016 or 2014.
The components of fixed assets are as follows:
Goodwill and Other Intangibles
Goodwill is the excess of the total purchase consideration transferred over the amounts allocated to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date. Goodwill is not amortized, but it is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level by first performing a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. Otherwise, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required.
Goodwill is reviewed for impairment at least annually in accordance with ASC topic 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (ASC 350), or when an event occurs or circumstances change between annual tests that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying value. The Company performs its annual impairment test on January 1 of each fiscal year and begins with a qualitative assessment to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value.
If the Company concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying value, a quantitative fair value assessment is performed and compared to the carrying value. If the fair value is less than the carrying value, impairment is recorded.
Intangible assets with determinable lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their respective estimated useful lives. If
the Company were to determine that a change to the remaining estimated useful life of an intangible asset was necessary, then
the remaining carrying amount of the intangible asset would be amortized prospectively over that revised remaining useful life.
On an ongoing basis, the Company reviews intangible assets with a definite life and other long-lived assets other than goodwill
for impairment whenever events and circumstances indicate that carrying values may not be recoverable. If such events or
changes in circumstances occur, the Company will recognize an impairment loss if the undiscounted future cash flow expected
to be generated by the asset is less than the carrying value of the related asset. Any impairment loss would adjust the asset to
its implied fair value.
The Company determined there were triggering events and performed quantitative analysis of goodwill in fiscal year 2015 and concluded all goodwill was impaired. See Note 5, Goodwill and Intangibles for further discussion of goodwill and intangible evaluations.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-16, Business Combinations: Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments (ASU 2015-16), which eliminates the requirement to retroactively account for measurement-period adjustments to provisional amounts recognized in a business combination. Under the new guidance, the measurement-period adjustments must be recognized in the period in which adjustments are determined, including the effect on earnings of any amounts that would have been recorded in previous periods. The standard is effective for the Company's financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued. The Company adopted this guidance in the second quarter of fiscal year 2016 with no impact on the Consolidated Financial Statements because there were no open measurement periods.
Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue
The Company's revenue is derived from the sale of products, software, and services. The Company records revenue from product sales transactions when title and risk of loss are passed to the customer, there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement for sale, delivery has occurred and/or services have been rendered, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.
Revenue recognition on equipment, where software is incidental to the product as a whole or, where software is essential to the equipment’s functionality and falls under software accounting scope exceptions, generally occurs when products are shipped, risk of loss has transferred to the customer, objective evidence exists that customer acceptance provisions have been met, no significant obligations remain, collection is reasonably assured and warranty can be estimated.
Revenue recognition, where software is more than incidental to the product as a whole or, where software is sold on a stand-alone basis is recognized when the software is delivered and ownership and risk of loss are transferred.
The Company also recognizes revenue from deployment services, maintenance agreements, training and professional services. Deployment services revenue results from installation of products at customer sites. Deployment services are not services required for the functionality of products, because customers do not have to purchase installation services from the Company, and may install products themselves, or hire third parties to perform the installation services. Revenue for deployment services, training and professional services are recognized upon completion and acceptance. Revenue from maintenance agreements is recognized ratably over the service period.
When a multiple element arrangement exists, the fee from the arrangement is allocated to the various deliverables, so the proper amount can be recognized as revenue as each element is delivered. Based on the composition of the arrangement, the Company analyzes the provisions of the accounting guidance to determine the appropriate model that is applied towards accounting for the multiple element arrangement. If the arrangement includes a combination of elements that fall within different applicable guidance, the Company follows the provisions of the hierarchical literature to separate those elements from each other and apply the relevant guidance to each.
If deliverables do not fall within the software revenue recognition guidance, the fair value of each element is established using the relative selling price method, which requires the Company to use vendor-specific objective evidence (VSOE), reliable third-party objective evidence or management's best estimate of selling price, in that order.
If deliverables fall within the software revenue recognition guidance, the fee is allocated to the various elements based on VSOE of fair value. If sufficient VSOE of fair value does not exist for the allocation of revenue to all the various elements in a multiple element arrangement, all revenue from the arrangement is deferred until the earlier of the point at which such sufficient VSOE of fair value is established or all elements within the arrangement are delivered. If VSOE of fair value exists for all undelivered elements, but does not exist for one or more delivered elements, the arrangement consideration is allocated to the various elements of the arrangement using the residual method of accounting. Under the residual method, the amount of the arrangement consideration allocated to the delivered elements is equal to the total arrangement consideration less the aggregate fair value of the undelivered elements. Using this method, any potential discount on the arrangement is allocated entirely to the delivered elements, which ensures that the amount of revenue recognized at any point in time is not overstated. Under the residual method, if VSOE of fair value exists for the undelivered element, generally maintenance, the fair value of the undelivered element is deferred and recognized ratably over the term of the maintenance contract, and the remaining portion of the arrangement is recognized as revenue upon delivery, which generally occurs upon delivery of the product.
The Company has established VSOE. The application of VSOE methodologies requires judgment, including the identification of individual elements in multiple element arrangements and whether there is VSOE of fair value for some or all elements.
The Company’s product return policy allows customers to return unused equipment for partial credit if the equipment is non-custom product, returned within specified time limits, and currently being manufactured and sold. Credit is not offered on returned products that are no longer manufactured and sold.
The Company records revenue net of sales returns and sale taxes in accordance with ASC topic 605, Revenue Recognition (ASC 605).
Shipping and Handling
Freight billed to customers is recorded as revenue. The Company classifies shipping and handling costs associated with the distribution of finished product to our customers as cost of revenue.
Most of the Company’s products carry a limited warranty of up to seven years. The Company accrues for estimated warranty costs as products are shipped based on historical sales and cost of repair or replacement trends relative to sales. See Note 7 for further discussion of the Company’s product warranties.
Research and Development Costs
Engineering and product research and development costs are charged to expense as incurred.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for all employee stock-based payments based upon the fair value on the awards grant date over the requisite service period. If the awards are performance based, the Company must estimate future performance attainment to determine the number of awards expected to vest. Determining the fair value of equity-based options requires the Company to estimate the expected volatility of its stock, the risk-free interest rate, expected option term, and expected dividend yield. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (ASU 2016-09). The Company early adopted ASU 2016-09 during the quarter ended March 31, 2016. ASU 2016-09 includes the following changes to the accounting for
share-based payments that will have an impact to the Company's reported financial results:
See Note 9 for further discussion of the Company’s stock-based compensation plans.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company accounts for the fair value of assets and liabilities in accordance with ASC 820. ASC 820 defines fair value and establishes a framework for measuring fair value as required by other accounting pronouncements. See Note 13 for further discussion of the Company’s fair value measurements.
The Company’s primary foreign currency exposure is subject to fluctuations in exchange rates for the U.S. dollar versus the Australian and Canadian dollar and the related effects on receivables and payables denominated in those currencies. The functional currency for Noran Tel, the Company's foreign subsidiary located in Canada, is the U. S. dollar. The Company records transaction gains (losses) for fluctuations on foreign currency rates on accounts receivable, accounts payable, and cash as a component of other income (expense), net on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the provisions of ASC topic 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). ASC 740 requires an asset and liability based approach in accounting for income taxes. Deferred income tax assets, including net operating loss (NOL) and certain tax credit carryovers and liabilities, are recorded based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities, applying enacted statutory tax rates in effect for the year in which the tax differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided against deferred tax assets, which are assessed as not likely to be realized. On a quarterly basis, management evaluates the recoverability of deferred tax assets and the need for a valuation allowance. This evaluation requires the use of estimates and assumptions and considers all positive and negative evidence and factors, such as the scheduled reversal of temporary differences, the mix of earnings in the jurisdictions in which the Company operates, and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the dates of enactment. The Company accounts for unrecognized tax benefits based upon its assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The Company reports a liability for unrecognized tax benefits resulting from unrecognized tax benefits taken or expected to be taken in a tax return and recognizes interest and penalties, if any, related to its unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense. See Note 4 for further discussion of the Company’s income taxes.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, which requires that all tax liabilities and assets be classified as non-current in a classified statement of financial position. ASU 2015-17 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. In the quarter ended December 31, 2015, the Company early adopted ASU 2015-17 with retrospective application, which resulted in the following reclassification from current deferred income taxes to non-current deferred income taxes on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2015:
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (ASU 2016-02). ASU 2016-02 establishes a comprehensive new lease accounting model. The new standard clarifies the definition of a lease and causes lessees to recognize leases on the balance sheet as a lease liability with a corresponding right-of-use asset for leases with a lease term of more than one year. ASU 2016-02 is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The new standard requires a modified retrospective transition for capital or operating leases existing at or entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, but it does not require transition accounting for leases that expire prior to the date of initial application. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2016-02 will have on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (ASU 2015-11). The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should measure inventory at the "lower of cost and net realizable value" and options that currently exist for "market value" will be eliminated. The ASU defines net realizable value as the "estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable cost of completion, disposal, and transportation." The standard is effective for the Company's financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements or related disclosures.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (ASU 2014-15), to provide guidance on management’s responsibility in evaluating whether there is substantial doubt about a company’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. The amendments in this update are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2014-15 to have a significant impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements or related disclosures.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue From Contracts With Customers (ASU 2014-09), that outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. ASU 2014-09 is based on the principle that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to fulfill a contract. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified retrospective approach for the adoption of the new standard. The ASU becomes effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that reporting period; early adoption is not permitted. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) — Deferral of the Effective Date (ASU 2015-14), which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 for one year and permits early adoption as early as the original effective date of ASU 2014-09. The new revenue standard may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that ASU 2014-09 will have on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef